Human dwellings, birds nests, and bat caves make the most suitable habitats for Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs) since they offer warmth, areas to hide, and most importantly hosts on which to feed. Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs) are not evenly distributed throughout the environment but are instead concentrated in areas such as cracks and crevices in walls, furniture, behind wallpaper and wood paneling, or under carpeting. Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs) are usually only active during night but will feed during the day when hungry. Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs) can be transported on clothing, in traveler’s luggage, or in bedding and furniture but lack appendages to enable them to cling to hair, fur, or feathers, so are rarely found on hosts.
Because of their confined living spaces, copulation among male and female Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs) is difficult. The female possesses a secondary copulatory aperture, Ribaga’s organ or paragenital sinus, on the fourth abdominal sternum where spermatozoa from the male are injected. The spermatozoa then migrate to the ovaries by passing through the haemocoel, or body cavity. The female Bed Bug (BedBug) lays approximately 200 eggs during her life span at a rate of one to 12 eggs per day. The eggs are laid on rough surfaces and coated with a transparent cement to adhere them to the substrate. Within six to 17 days Bed Bug (BedBug) nymphs, almost devoid of color, emerge from the eggs. After five molts, which takes approximately ten weeks, the nymphs reach maturity.
Survey and Management
Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs) are most active at night. They are extremely shy and wary so their infestations are not easily noticed by sight. However, when Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs) are numerous, a foul odor from oily secretions can easily be detected. Other recognizable signs of a Bed Bug (BedBug) infestation include excrement left around points of entry and exit to their hiding places and reddish brown spots on mattresses and furniture. Good sanitation is the first step to controlling the spread of Bed Bugs (Bed Bugs). However, it is not enough to stop a Bed Bug (BedBug) infestation. Mattresses should be thoroughly vacuumed. For severe infestations, however, pesticides may be used. If pesticides are used, allow bedding and furniture to dry thoroughly before using.